The regular/timed salat from The Quran: how many and when?

Overwhelming evidence from The Quran suggests the regular/timed salat of the mumineen/believers is a minimum of twice daily, with an optional night vigil. The evidence and timings for this understanding are as follows, listed in no particular order:

1) there are only two salat mentioned in The Quran in a reference format (see 24:58, salat al fajr, and, salat al isha). Note that "al salat al wusta" in 2:238 is not in the same form [see point 11 here].
2) the ONLY verse in the plural address to the mumineen which mentions a timed-salat is 24:58 which only has two timings.
3) it is the ONLY understanding that provides us with a clear time-range for each timed-salat, explained below, meaning it is the most logical, clear, coherent and practical.
4) it is the ONLY understanding that I have seen which respects the Arabic (i.e. other understandings ignore word forms, grammar, are inconsistent or make baseless claims)
5) all verses in the plural address which mention a timed-SaBiH/glorification or timed-THiKR/rememberance reference morning and evening (i.e. two timings)
6) all verses which mention a timed-SaBiH or timed-THiKR which could be interpreted as more than two timings are in the singular address [see article]
7) it is the ONLY understanding that can encompass other salat-timing systems such as thrice daily, or 5 daily, since it is a minimum of two.
8) it is the ONLY understanding that shows when The Quran mentions salat timings in a verse it always mentions the obligatory timings (i.e. two) together, unlike other understandings which say Quran sometimes mentions two here, three there, one here, one there etc. Making the understanding presented here the clearest of the variant views.
9) it is the only understanding that results in symmetrical timings (morning and evening) which by itself has little weight in argument other than one of elegance/aesthetics.
10) it is the ONLY timing system which works in all parts of the world. This will be explained later.

The only verses which mention salat alongside a timing component are: 11:114, 17:78, 24:58 and possibly 73:20.

11:114 ...uphold the salat at both/two edges of the daytime and the proximal parts* of the night...
*Arabic: "zulafan" is an Arabic plural meaning 3 or more.

Whilst this verse can be interpreted in multiple ways there is only one way to interpret it that provides us with a time-range for each salat:
salat al fajr / salat (of) the dawn/morning
As it's name suggests it is done around dawn (morning twilight). This can correctly be deemed one edge of the daytime and also involves a proximity of the night. Note that twilight is considered part of the night as per Quran.
To clarify: this timed-salat begins at morning twilight and ends when any part of the sun first appears above the horizon (i.e. end of morning twilight)
salat al isha / salat (of) the dusk/evening
As it's name suggests it is done around dusk (evening twilight). This can correctly be deemed one edge of the daytime and also involves the proximites of the night. Note that twilight is considered part of the night as per Quran.
To clarify: this timed-salat begins at evening twilight and ends with dark night (i.e. end of evening twilight).
This satisfies the Arabic plural "zulafan" in 11:114 as these two salat time-ranges include morning twilight, evening twilight and a small part of dark night, i.e. 3 proximal parts of the night.
Note, if one wishes to extend these times slightly, that is also acceptable in my opinion, see this article for further information. 

17:78 uphold the salat (at/for) the setting of the sun / sunset to the darkness of the night and reading (of) the dawn...

The above verse can be interpreted to perfectly agree with 11:114. Some incorrectly claim this can refer to several salat [see point 6 here]. Please note "quran al fajr (reading/recitation (of) the dawn)" occurs at the same time as "salat al fajr" and are taken as equivalent in my understanding, proving a simple explanation as to what timed-salat of the mumineen involves [see article for more detail and other verses which back this up]. However what salat is does not really affect our discussion of timings.
17:79 refers to an optional/voluntary addition of variable timing [also see Chapter 73] by mentioning awaking for reading/recitation.

The reason why this minimum of two timings works in all parts of the world is that the only plural address which mentions a timed-salat is 24:58 (11:114 and 17:78 are in the singular address). In 24:58 a morning salat (salat al fajr) and evening salat (salat al isha) are mentioned. The sun is not explicitly/directly mentioned. This is important because in some parts of the world the sun may not appear above or below the horizon for part of the year. Please research countries within the Arctic circle and polar day and polar night for further information. No matter where one is in the world all societies have a morning (activity/working period) and evening time (sleep/rest period). Of course this would mean there is no set time-range for each salat in this scenario, which is not a problem in my view, and the morning and evening time-ranges in Quran can be taken as exemplars/models to follow.

The Challenge
If you find an error/flaw in the above you will be eligible for $100 USD per error/flaw or you may opt for it to be donated to a charity of your choosing. Proof of donation will be provided in that case. Please post any claimed flaws in this thread, thanks. Valid errors/flaws will be determined by the author.

Background reading links:
An Understanding of salat from Al Quran (The Reading)
The common problems with 5 salat daily timings as per The Quran - Part 1
The common problems with 5 salat daily timings as per The Quran - Part 2
According to Traditional Islamic sources how many times did the earliest Muslims perform salat?

Articles and past discussions about timings: reference one :: two :: three :: four :: five :: six :: seven :: eight :: nine :: ten :: eleven :: twelve

My other articles: LINK.

This work would not have been possible without the many people who have contributed to this topic, and without the resources now available to anyone wishing to study The Quran in detail. For these stepping stones, I am indebted and truly thankful.


This work reflects my personal understanding, as of March 28th 2020. Seeking knowledge is a continual process and I will try to improve my understanding of the signs within 'the reading' (al quran) and out with it, unless The God wills otherwise. All information is correct to the best of my knowledge only and thus should not be taken as a fact. One should always seek knowledge and verify for themselves when possible: 17:36, 20:114, 35:28, 49:6, 58:11.